On July 1, 2001 the European Union will implement a new banana import policy, ending charger brought ending the charges brought in April 1996 by the U.S., Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico (the G5) against EU about discriminatory import policy for bananas. The battle highlights serious problems with the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism, which weaken the case for the existence of WTO.
Facts an scientific evidence apparently play little role in the formulation of environmental policy, argues Parth J Shah
Is our public policy about economy to environment based on science? Do facts, evidence, and objective deliberations determine it? Or do we rely largely on our hunches and gut feelings, our general sense of how the world works, or what Thomas Sowell termed “vision”? Is the stand on a policy issue set by our subconscious sense (Sowell’s vision), and the science used mainly to rationalise it?
Nothing in life is more certain than death and taxes. Death however comes once, taxes every year. How many days of the year an average citizen works to pay for government expenditures? When does he become free from being a slave to the government? Tax Freedom Day (TFD) is the day you stop working for the government and start working for yourself. It refers to the number of days one has to work to pay off the taxes. During the years 1980 to 2000, it has varied between 65 days (1980) to 80 days (1987). In other words, people had to work from January 1 to March 5 (1980) and to March 20 (1987). The Tax Freedom Day for the year 2000 was March 14 (74 days).
For a Gujarati today, to think about social problems is to think about the Godhra carnage and its inhuman aftermath. Underlying it all is Ayodhya. No lasting peace and harmony seems possible unless the Ayodhya problem is solved.
The earthquake in Gujarat has drawn attention to the quality of building construction. Most of the damage—to property and people—has been due to collapse of multi-story buildings. Construction of these buildings was such that they could not withstand the shocks of the earthquake. Government engineers tell us that the buildings were not built according to the building byelaws. And now there is a clamour from government, tenants, and consumer activists for new byelaws and strict enforcement. Buildings collapsed, it is argued, because of the lack of laws and regulations. Or did they collapse under the weight of all the good laws and regulations?
India is truly a land of paradoxes. She is marching towards liberalisation and privatisation without recognising the right to property as a fundamental right. Legal protection and status of private property is weaker in India than even in formerly communist countries. The Supreme Court has accepted governments claim that any compensation is fair and just when government acquires private property. No dispute about governments payment for takings shall be entertained. There is no rule of law in acquiring and using private property for public purposes. Truly a land of paradoxes.
Almost half of our urban population lives in slums. Urban population and slums grow due to rural migration. The poor come down to the cities because the land is unable to sustain them, or because the prospects of life there are brighter.
Economic theory tells us that the root of prosperity is productivity and that productivity depends on the division of labour and knowledge. The scope for this division and specialisation is far higher in cities. Cities therefore are prosperous. But can cities exist without slums?
The great majority of school leavers in India don't have access to institutions of higher education. The ten million who do, have very few choices, which allows colleges to prosper despite providing indifferent service and poor quality education. It's quite clear that only a substantial increase in the number of higher education institutions will improve the situation. Moreover increased institutional supply will lead to greater competition among colleges, which in turn will result in sustained improvement in the quality of higher education.
After 59 years of independence, four of ten Indians are illiterate and to all intents and purposes barred from a prosperous future.
Kerala has the highest literacy rate in the nation, above ninety percent. The way Kerala spends its education money is also strikingly different from the other states. For illustration, I compare it with the state of West Bengal. Ideologically the governments of both states are equally committed to basic education and literacy. Both states have for long had popularly elected Marxist governments. The conclusions of the comparative analysis are however generally valid.